Rock crushers involve machines used to crush rocks into smaller pieces. They mainly crush gravel or building and road construction materials. These machines include a hopper at the top and a container at the top of the rock crusher using gravity to feed the rocks. The bottom of the crusher contains a hole that allows the pressed rocks to exist only when they are of a specific size. Sometimes the rock crushers may be arranged in stages allowing the rocks to be finer. Therefore, various types of crushers are optimal for different crushing requirements.
Types of Rock Crushers
These machines are typically used as the primary crushers. Jaw crushers aim at reducing the materials into smaller pieces that conveyors can easily transport into the next stage. They involve crushing rocks and other materials between a moving and a fixed jaw. The fixed jaw usually stays put while the moving jaw is placed on a pitman having a reciprocating motion.
The two major types of jaw crushers include double toggle and single toggle. A double toggle crusher involves two toggle plates and two shafts. One of the shafts acts as a pivot at the top of the crusher, while the other acts as an eccentric shaft driving both toggle plates. The single toggle crusher involves an eccentric shaft at the top of the crusher, and the toggle plate causes the compression action along with the shaft rotation.
These crushers can be used in the primary stage as well as the secondary stage. However, they are less frequently used in the secondary stage. The machine involves an oscillating shaft, and the materials are usually crushed between the bowl liner and the mantle. The liners around the chambers continuously compress the materials leading to fragmentation.
Additionally, these crushers entail a hydraulic setting adjustment system that regulates the gradation of crushed materials.
Cone crushers are usually used in the Quaternary, secondary, and tertiary crushing stages. Nevertheless, they operate like gyratory crushers; thus, they can also be used in the first stage of the rock crushing process.
Cone crushers comprise an oscillating shaft that crushes the materials fed into it between a mantle and a bowl liner. Also, they contain an eccentric shaft rotated by a pinion and a gear, thus producing the oscillating movement of the main shaft. Interparticular crushing occurs when the compressed particles have an additional crushing effect.
These crushing machines are versatile and can be utilized in any crushing process. Nevertheless, the capabilities and features of various impact crushers vary considerably.
Impact crushers include two major classifications: vertical shaft impact crushers and horizontal shaft impact crushers. These two divisions share the same crushing principle, but their capabilities, optimal application, and features are different.
The horizontal shaft impact crushers are utilized in the tertiary, secondary, and primary crushing stages. These crushers reduce crush on the materials through highly intensive impacts resulting from quick rotation of the rotor bars or hammers. Consequently, vertical shaft impact crushers are utilized during the last crushing stage, especially if the end product requires a specific cubical shape.
Choosing the appropriate crushing equipment can be challenging; however, you can use software and tools to help make decisions easier.